Community A - L: Soil Description/Types
The soils for Montcalm County formed from materials deposited by the melting Wisconsin glacial ice sheet. This material, generally termed glacial drift, varies widely in texture, as do the resulting soils. They can, however, generally be grouped into four categories.

The fine textured Nester-Kawkawlin (Perrinton-Ithaca) soil association comprises approximately 11 percent of Montcalm County and occurs mainly in the southeastern part. Soils are generally well to somewhat poorly drained and occur on landscape, which vary in slope from level to rolling.

The sandy textured Grayling (Plainfield) soil association comprises approximately 11 percent of the land area of the county and occurs mainly in the northwest and western parts of the county. Soils are excessively drained and slopes vary from level to rolling.

Small areas or pockets of very poorly drained muck soils occur throughout the county in depressions and along drainage ways. These soils formed from accumulations of herbaceous and woody material preserved by the saturated environment of bogs and swamps. They make up about three percent of the county.

The remaining 75 percent is comprised of soils that are generally well drained and of sandy loam or loamy texture. Slopes on which these soils occur range from level to rolling.

Barry (Ensley) Series
Boots (Rifle) Series
Carlisle Series
Fox (Newaygo) Series
Gilford (Epoufette) Series
Ithaca (Kawkawlin) Series
Mescota (Mancelona) Series
Perrinton (Nester) Series
Plainfield (Grayling) Series
Remus (McBride) Series
Spinks (Montcalm) Series
Tekenink (Isabella) Series
Wasepi (Gladwin) Series
Zeigenfuss (Sims) Series

Barry (Ensley) Series

The Barry series consists of very deep, poorly drained soils formed in loamy glacial till deposits on ground moraines and end moraines. These soils have moderate permeability. Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 30 inches, and mean annual temperature is about 49 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic typic Argiaquolls

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: The Barry soils formed in loamy glacial till deposits and are on nearly level and depressional areas of ground moraines and end moraines. Slope gradients range from 0 to 3 percent Mean annual precipitation ranges from 27 to 37 inches, and mean annual temperature ranges from 47 to 50 degrees F.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Brady, Dryden, Gilford, Lapeer, Locke, and Wasepi soils. Brady, Gilford and Wasepi soils are associated with Barry soils in drainageways, especially on moraines. They ar coarse-loamy. The well drained Lapeer, moderately well drained Dryden, and somewhat poorly drained Locke soils are in a drainge sequence with Barry soils and are in higher landscape positions.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Poorly drained. The soil has a seasonal high water table that ranges from 1 foot above the surface to 1 foot below the surface from November to May. Thelow precipitation phase has a seasonal high water table at 1 to 2.5 feet from November to July. Surface runoff is slow or ponded. Permeability is moderate.

USE AND VEGETATION: These soils are cropped to corn, small grains, soybeans and hay where artificial drainage is adequate. Undrained areas and a small part of the drained areas are in permanent pasture or deciduous forest.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: south- Central part of Wisconsin, northern Iowa, southern Minnesota, southern Michigan, and New York. The series is relatively extensive.

Boots (Rifle) Series

The Boots series consists of deep, very poorly drained soils formed in organic material. These soils have moderate or moderately rapid permeability. Slopes are less than 2 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 30 inches, and mean annual temperature is about 48 degrees F.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Boots soils are in depressions within moraines, outwash areas and lake basins. Slope gradients are less than 2 percent. Mean annual temperature is estimated to range from 45 to 54 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation ranges from 28 to 33 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Houghton soils and the Adrian and Palms soils. These soils occupy similar positions on the landscape. Adrian and Palms soils consist of sapric material above mineral substrata which is at depths of less than 50 inches. Very poorly drained, poorly drained or somewhat poorly drained mineral soils are commonly along the outer boundary.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Very poorly drained. Surface runoff and internal drainage are very slow or ponded. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid.

USE AND VEGETATION: These soils are primarily in woodland, but in some places the vegetation is chiefly reeds, sedges and cattails. Principal woodland vegetation is tamarack, dogwood, poison sumac, alder and willow with ground cover of sphagnum moss, marsh grasses, sedges, reeds and cattails. Ground cover varies with amount of sunlight and microrelief.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: South-central part of Wisconsin, northern Iowa, southern Minnesota, southern Michigan and New York. The series is moderately extensive.

Carlisle Series

The Carlisle series consists of very deep, very poorly drained soils formed in woody and herbacceous organic materials in depressions within lake plains, outwash plains, ground moraines, flood plains and moraines. These soils have moderately slow to moderately rapid permeability. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Euic, mesic Typic Haplosaprists

TYPICAL PEDON: Carlisle muck – on a nearly level cut-over area. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated).

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Carlisle soils occupy depressions within lake plains, outwash plains, ground moraines and floodplains. These soils formed in woody and herbaceous organic materials. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. Elevations are 250 to 3,800 feet. The mean annual precipitation ranges from 30 to 47 inches, and the mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 55 degrees F. The frost free period is 110 to 180 days.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Adrian, Edwards, Linwood and Willette soils. These soils have a mineral layer in the control seciton. Poorly drained or very poorly drained mineral soils such as Granby, Lenawee or Parkhills occur at the margins of Carlisle areas as they grade into the upland.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Very poorly drained. Depth to the seasonal high water table ranges from 1.0 foot above the surface to 1 foot below the surface from September to June. Surface runoff is very slow or ponded. Permeability is moderately slow to moderately rapid.

USE AND VEGETATION: A high proportion of these soils have been drained and are used for truck crops or pasture. Major crops include onions, potatoes, corn, radishes, celery, carrots and lettuce. Some areas are used for small grains, hay and sod production. The remaining portion is in woodland or cut over woodland. Major tree species include American elm, white ash, red maple, willow, tamarack, quaking aspen and alder.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern Michigan, Connecticut, Indiana, Ohio, Wisconsin, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont. The series is of large extent, about 448,000 acres. MLRA’s 99, 100, 101, 111, 139, 140, 142, 144A, 144B and 145.

Fox (Newaygo) Series

The Fox series consists of very deep, well drained soils which are moderately deep to stratified calcareous sandy outwash. These soils formed in thin loess and in loamy alluvium or just in loamy alluvium overlying stratified calcareous sandy outwash on outwash plains, stream terraces, valley trains, kames and glacial moraines. Permeability is moderate in the loamy mantle and rapid or very rapid in the outwash. Slopes range from 0 to 35 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 30 inches near the type location. Mean annual air temperature is about 49F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Fox soils are on outwash plains, stream terraces, valley trains and kames and in outwash areas on moraines. Slope gradients range from 0 to 35 percent. These soils formed in thin loess and loamy alluvium or just in loamy alluvium overlying stratified calcareous sandy outwash. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 27 to 44 inches. Mean annual temperature ranges from 46 to 57 degrees F. The frost free period ranges from about 135 to 190 days. Elevation ranges from 580 to 1300 feet.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: Near the type location, these are the Casco, Dresden, Matherton, Ockley and Sebewa soils. The somewhat excessively drained Casco soils are on landscape positions similar to those of Fox soils where the loamy mantle is 10 to 20 inches thick over outwash. The well drained Dresden and Ockley soils are in landscape positions similar to those of Fox soils. Dresden soils are din areas where the surface layer is dark colored. Ockley soils are in areas where the loamy soil is more than 40 inches thick over outwash. The somewhat poorly drained Matherton soils and the poorly drained Sebewa soils form a drainage sequence with Fox soils.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. The potential for surface runoff is neglible to high. Permeability is moderate in the silty and loamy mantle and rapid or very rapid in the sand and gravel outwash.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most of the less sloping areas are used for cropland. Common crops are corn, soybeans, small grains and hay. Some areas are used for pastureland or woodland. Native vegetation is hardwood forest. Common trees are northern red oak, white oak, sugar maple, black cherry and white ash.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: southeastern Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, southern Michigan, western Ohio and eastern Iowa. The series is of large extent.

Gilford (Epoufette) Series

The Gilford series consists of very deep, poorly drained or very poorly drained soils that formed in loamy over sandy sediments on outwash plains and flood-plain steps. The permeability is moderately rapid in the solum and rapid in the substratum. These soils are on 0 to 2 percent slopes. Mean annual temperature is about 50 degrees F., and mean annual precipitation is about 35 inches.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Endoaquolls

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Gilford soils are commonly on broad closed depressions on outwash plains and lake-plains. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. They formed in loamy over sandy outwash sediments. The mean annual temperature ranges from 48 to 53 degrees F, and the mean annual precipitation ranges from 30 to 42 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Boyer, Ormas, Oshtemo, Branch, Bronson, Brady, Granby, Maumee, Morocco and Mussey soils. The well drained Boyer, Ormas and Oshtemo soils are on summits and swells of outwash plains, or on backslopes of dissected outwash plains. The moderately well drained Branch and Bronson soils are on summits and swells of outwash plains. The somewhat poorly drained Brady and Morocco soils are on enarly level outwash plains. The poorly and very poorly drained, more sandy Mussey, Granby and Maumee soils are on outwash plains adjacent to the Gilford soils.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Poorly drained or very poorly drained. The potential for surface runoff is negligible. Permeability is moderately rapid in the upper part and rapid in the lower part of the series control section. In undrained areas, depth to an apparent intermittent high water table is from 0.5 feet above the soil surface to 0.5 feet below the soil surface from November through June in most years. In drained areas, depth to an apparent intermittent high water table is from 0.5 feet above the soil surface to 1 foot below the soil surface from December through May in most years.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of these soils are used for growing corn, soybeans, wheat and oats. A few areas are forested. Native vegetation is dominantly herbaceous wetland.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Northern Indiana, Michigan, northwestern Ohio, southeastern Wisconsin, southeastern Iowa, northeastern Missouri and northern and central Illinois. The series is extensive and is dominantly in MLRA’s 98, 99, 110 and of a lesser extent in 95B, 97, 108, 111 and 115.

Ithaca (Kawkawlin) Series

The Ithaca series consists of very deep, somewhat poorly drained soils formed in glacial till on ground and end moraines. These soils have moderately slow or slow permeability. Slopes range from 0 to 6 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 30 inches and mean annual temperature is about 46 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Aquic Glossudalfs

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Ithaca soils are on end moraines and ground moraines. Slope gradients range from 0 to 6 percent. Ithaca soils formed in moderately fine, calcareous glacial till of Wisconsinan Age. Mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 50 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation ranges from 28 to 34 inches.

GEORGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: Ithaca soils are associated in the landscape with the Arkona and Perrinton soils. Arkona soils are on similar landscape and have 20 to 40 inches of coarse material over the moderately fine material. Perrinton soils lack low chroma mottles in the upper 10 inches of the argillic horizon.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat poorly drained. The depth to the seasonal high water tables ranges from 1 to 2 feet below the surface from October to May. Runoff is slow or medium. Permeability is moderately slow or slow. Potential surface runoff is negligible to high.

USE AND VEGETATION: About 90 percent of this soil is cultivated or in pasture. The remainder is in woodland. Corn, oats, soybeans, wheat and legume hay are the major crops. Native vegetation was mixed hardwoods, predominantly sugar maple, American basswood, northern red oak, yellow birch and American beech.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern half of Lower Michigan. The Ithaca soils are of moderate extent.

Mescota (Mancelona) Series
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The Mecosta series consists of deep, somewhat excessively drained soils formed in sand and gravel deposits. These soils are on outwash plains and moraines. Permeability is rapid in the upper part and very rapid in the lower part. Slope gradients range from 0 to 35 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 32 inches, and mean annual temperature is about 48 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic Typic Udorthents

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Mecosta soils are on outwash plains and moraines. Slope gradients range from 0 to 35 percent. The soil formed in calcareous sand and gravel. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 28 to 35 inches, and mean annual temperature from 46 to 50 degrees F.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Coloma, Covert and Riverdale soils. Coloma soils lack a calcareous 2C horizon, and are on similar topographic positions as Mecosta soils. The moderately well drained Covert and somewhat poorly drained Riverdale soils are in lower positions in the landscape than the Mecosta soils.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat excessively drained. Surface runoff is slow on the gentle slopes and medium on the steeper slopes. Permeability is rapid in the solum and very rapid in the substratum.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are in red pine plantations or idle grassland. Some areas are used for urban development. Native vegetation was oak, aspen and maple forest.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern Michigan and southern Wisconsin. The series is of moderate extent.

Perrinton (Nester) Series

The Perrinton series consists of very deep, well drained and moderately well drained soils formed in glacial till on ground and end moraines. These soils have slow permeability. Slopes range from 0 to 70 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 30 inches, and mean annual temperature is about 46 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Haplic Glossudalfs

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Perrinton soils are on ground and end moraines. Slope gradients are dominantly between 2 and 18 percent, but range from 0 to 70 percent Perrinton soils formed in loamy glacial till. The mean annual temperature ranges from 46 to 52 degrees F. and the mean annual precipitation ranges from 28 to 34 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: Perrinton soils are associated in the landscape with the Ithaca and Marlette soils. The somewhat poorly drained Ithaca soils are in a drainage sequence with Perrinton soils. Marlette soils have fine-loamy control sections.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained and moderately well drained. The moderately well drained phase has a seasonal high water table from 2.5 to 6.0 feet below the surface from November to April. Surface runoff is slow to rapid, depending upon slope. Permeability is slow.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most of the gently sloping areas are under cultivation to corn, soybeans, small grain or hay. Some areas are in apple orchards. Most of the steeper areas are in pasture or woodland. The native vegetation was sugar maple, American elm, American beech, white ash and American basswood.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern half of lower Michigan. The Perrinton soils are of moderate extent.

Plainfield (Grayling) Series

The Plainfield series consists of very deep, excessively drained soils formed in sandy drift on outwash plains, valley trains, glacial lake basins, stream terraces and moraines and other upland areas. Infiltation is rapid or very rapid. These soils have rapid permeability. Slopes range from 0 to 70 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 30 inches near the type location. Mean annual temperature is about 49 degrees F. near the type location.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: The Plainfield soils are on outwash plains, glacial lake basins, valley trains, stream terraces and moraines and other upland places. Slopes range from 0 to 70 percent. They formed in sandy drift. Mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 53 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation from 28 to 38 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are principally the Brems, Morocco and Newton soils. The moderately well drained Brems, somewhat poorly drained Morocco and poorly drained Newton soils form a drainage sequence with Plainfield soils. Since Plainfield soils have a wide geographic distribution, there are many other locally associated soils.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Excessively drained and moderately well drained. Surface runoff is slow to very rapid. Infiltration is rapid or very rapid.

USE AND VEGETATION: Many areas of Plainfield soils were cleared at one time and used for pasture or cropland, but much of it has now reverted to woods or is in poor pasture. Some areas are in pine plantings. In many places, these soils are irrigated and specialty crops are grown.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern half of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, southeast Minnesota, New York and Ohio. Plainfield soils are of large extent (over three-quarters of a million acres).

Remus (McBride) Series

The Remus series consists of very deep, well drained moderately slowly permeable soils that formed in loamy glacial till on ground and end moraines. Slope gradients range from 0 to 60 percent. Mean annual precipitation is 32 inches, and mean annual temperature is 47 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, semiactive, mesic Haplic Glossudalfs

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: The Remus soils are on ground and end moraines of Wisconsinan Age. They formed in loamy glacial till. Slopes typically are 0 to 18 percent, but range from 0 to 60 percent. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 30 to 32 inches, and mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 49 degrees F.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Locke, Marlette, Owosso and Spinks soils. Locke soils are somewhat poorly drained and are in a drainage sequence with Remus soils. Spinks soils are coarser textured. Marlette soils are finer textured. Owosso soils have a finer textured substratum than Remus soils Marlette, Owosso and Spinks soils are on similar topographic positions as Remus soils.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Potential surface runoff is negligible to very high depending on the slope. Permeability is moderately slow.

USE AND VEGETATION: A large portion of the gentle slopes are cultivated. Corn, alfalfa and small grain are the principal crops. Other areas are in woodland.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: The central portion of lower Michigan. The series is of moderate extent.

Spinks (Montcalm) Series

The Spinks series consists of very deep, well drained soils formed in sandy eolian or outwash material. They are on dunes and on foot slopes of moraines, till plains, outwash plains, beach ridges and lake plains. These soils have moderately rapid permeability. Slopes range from 0 to 60 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 33 inches, and mean annual temperature is about 49 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Sandy, mixed, mesic Lamellic Hapludalfs

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Spinks soils formed in sandy eolian or outwash material on dunes and on foot slopes of moraines, till plains, outwash plains, beach ridges and lake plains of Wisconsinan Age. Typically, the slope range is from 2 to 18 percent but ranges from 0 to 70 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 29 to 37 inches, and mean annual temperature is about 47 to 50 degrees F.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: The Spinks soils are the well drained member of a drainage sequence that includes the somewhat poorly drained Thetford soils. They are associated with the Boyer and Oshtemo soils on lake plains or outwash plains, and Oakville or Chelsea soils on either lake plains or moraines. Dryden, Lapeer, Metea, Ottokee and Owosso soils are on adjoining till plains or moraines.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to medium. Permeability is moderately rapid.

USE AND VEGETATION: Spinks soils are used mostly for hay production or pasture. Some areas are cropped to corn, wheat, oats and soybeans. A small part is in orchards. Steeper areas are in forest or permanent pasture. The native vegetation is hardwoods, dominantly oaks and hickories.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern Michigan, northwestern Ohio, northern Indiana, southern Wisconsin and southern Minnesota (MLRA’s 95B, 96, 97, 98, 99 and 111). The series is of large extent, about 660,000 acres.

Tekenink (Isabella) Series

The Tekenink series consists of very deep, well drained soils formed in sandy loam glacial till. These soils are on ground or end moraines. Permeability is moderate. Slopes range from 0 to 40 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 32 inches, and mean annual temperature is about 48 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Glossudalfs

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Tekenink soils typically are on ground and end moraines of Wisconsinan Age. Slopes are dominantly 2 to 18 percent and range from 0 to 40 percent. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 28 to 38 inches, and the mean annual temperature ranges from 47to 50 degrees F.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: The somewhat poorly drained Teasdale and the poorly and very poorly drained Barry soils form a drainage sequence with Tekenink soils. Spinks and Oshtemo soils are nearby in most areas. Spinks soils do not have continuous argillic horizons. Oshtemo soils do not have glossic horizons and, in addition, are underlain by gravelly sand.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Potential surface runoff is negligible to high depending on the slope. Permeability is moderate.

USE AND VEGETATION: The more gentle slopes are used for general farming with small grains, legume-grass hay, corn and dry beans being the principal crops. Potatoes comprise a major acreage in some areas. Steeper slopes are used for woodland or permanent pasture. Native vegetation was mixed hardwoods. Tree species include sugar maple beech, oak, basswood and black cherry.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Central Michigan. Tekenink soils are of moderate extent.

Wasepi (Gladwin) Series

The Wasepi series consists of somewhat poorly drained soils formed in loamy deposits underlain by sand and gravel at 20 to 40 inches. Permeability is moderately rapid in the solum and rapid in the underlying sand and gravel. Slopes range from 0 to 6 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 33 inches, and mean annual temperature is about 49 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquollic Hapludalfs

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Wasepi soils are on outwash plains, deltas, valley trains, glacial drainageways and lake plains of Wisconsinan Age. The dominant slope is 0 to 2 percent, but ranges to 6 percent. This soil formed in loamy and sandy glaciofluvial deposits. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 29 to 37 inches, and mean annual temperature ranges from 46 to 50 degrees F.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Boyer, Brady, Gilford, Oshtemo, Perrin and Sebewa soils. The Wasepi soils are the somewhat poorly drained member of a drainage sequence that includes the well drained Boyer, moderately well drained Perrin and poorly drained Gilford soils. Brady, Oshtemo and Sebewa soils are closely associated on outwash plains.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat poorly drained. Surface runoff is slow. Permeability is moderately rapid in the solum and rapid in underlying sand and gravel.

USE AND VEGETATION: Soils are cultivated in most areas. Corn, soybeans, small grain and grass-legume hay are principal crops. Soils are used for permanent pasture or forest in a few areas. The native vegetation was hardwoods, principally American elm, white ash, hickory and swamp white oak.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern Michigan, northern Indiana, southern Wisconsin and northeastern Wisconsin. The series is of large extent.

Zeigenfuss (Sims) Series

The Ziegenfuss series consists of very deep, poorly drained, slowly permeable soils that formed in loamy and clayey till. They occur on ground moraines and depressional areas of steeper end moraines and have slopes ranging from 0 to 3 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 30 inches and mean annual temperature is about 48 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, mixed semiactive, nonacid, mesic Mollic Epiaquepts

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Ziegenfuss soils are on nearly level or depressional areas of ground moraines and end moraines. Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent. They formed in clayey calcareous glacial till. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 28 to 34 inches and the mean annual temperature ranges from 47 to 52 degrees F.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: THE WELL DRAINED OR MODERATELY WELL DRAINED Perrinton and the somewhat poorly drained Ithaca soils are in a drainage sequence with Ziegenfuss soils. They are the common associates in the northern part of the range of the Ziegenfuss series. The well drained and moderately well drained Morley, the moderately well drained Glynwood and the somewhat poorly drained Blount soils are common associates in the southern part of the range. The somewhat poorly drained Arkona soils are associated with thhe Ziegenfuss soils in the landscape. Arkona soils have 20 to 40 inches of sandy materials over the fine glacial till and are on higher positions in the landscape. In some places the Ziegenfuss oils are in narrow drainageways and morainic areas associated with the fine-loamy Marlette soils.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Poorly drained. The depth to the seasonal high water table ranges from 1 foot above the surface to 1 foot below the surface from November to May. Potential surface runoff is negligible to high. Permeability is slow.

USE AND VEGETATION: A large part of this soil is used for cropland. Principal crops are corn, small grains, beans and hay. A small part is in permanent pasture or in woodland of ash, red maple, hickory, basswood and swamp white oak.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern half of lower Michigan. The series is of moderate extent with about 15,000 acres presently mapped.